Another unique thing about Gˆbekli Tepe is the communities that built the oldest monumental structures. What we know from the contemporary settlements of Gˆbekli Tepe (for example in the Tigris region) is that the PPNA communities are relatively small in number, with people not exceeding 100-150. Although these communities generally lived in settlements that were defined as the first settled villages, they were still living with hunter and gatherers, harvesting wild wheat and not domesticating any plant or animal yet. The first cultured animal and plant remains in the region correspond to the PPNB period, ie approximately the date when Gˆbekli Tepe was abandoned. On the basis of this, we can assume that the people who made Gˆbekli Tepe witnessed the transition from the hunter-gatherer lifestyle (one of the most important transformations in human history) to the (modern) agrarian lifestyle.

Before the discovery of Gˆbekli Tepe, the PPNA communities were not predicted to have an architectural skill that we saw in the excavated areas at Gˆbekli Tepe. The discoveries at Gˆbekli Tepe have had a great impact on the researchers working on the Neolithic period and led to many new questions about PPNA communities, including social hierarchy, regionalism, division of labor, craft expertise and gender roles.